The Project for the Support for Joint Forest Management in the Kyrgyz Republic



Overview of Kyrgyz Nature

Area of Kyrgyz Republic is about 190,000 km2. The natural condition of this country is its steep terrain as the Tianshan Mountains crosses the Pamir Mountains. Linked to the east and west Tianshan Mountains with its foothills occupy the majority of the country, and Pamir plain spread in to the southern part of Kyrgyz to Tajikistan. The average elevation of the land reach 2,600m, 90% of the country lands occupy 1,500m or more above sea level, and 40% of them is located in the highlands which more than 3,000m. As the whole country, the continental dry climate as the severe cold winter and the heat summer but the climate might also be various by the region and elevation because of the variety terrains.

Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyz Republic belongs to the Mediterranean climate where is located in lowlands and foothills along the river, but more altitude increases, distribute subarctic continental climate and alpine climate. The precipitation is fewer overall (450mm per year in Bishkek), however the conditions much more blessed than the neighboring countries as Kazakhstan or Uzbekistan as the spread of deserts and step. The Kyrgyz Republic has an important role of water supplier in the Central Asia because of having rich melted-water that originated in glacier mountainous is the source of major rivers around the region.

Overview of forest in Kyrgyzstan

  • Vegetation distribution

The forest covered rate of Kyrgyz is only 4.3%. Harsh natural conditions as cold high altitude and a little rainfall of this country, the more difficult the establishment of forest. About 170 species of trees has been native in the Kyrgyz however its forest type is relatively small and monotonous by the climatic conditions. Forests of Kyrgyzstan are significantly divided into three typical forest vegetations. Spruce forests of the northern mountainous region, Walnut forest of southwest, Juniper forest towards the southern border of Tajikistan. In addition, the willows and gummy forests have been distributed throughout as shrub and riparian forests.

Spruce forest (mainly Tianshan spruce) is the most conspicuous forest in the mountains of northern Kyrgyzstan where is located at the foot of south Tianshan Mountains. The green pastures are spread along the wide open valley, black branches and leaves of high sharp spruce forest poke the sky, is familiar landscape as symbolize the natural beauty of the Kyrgyz Republic. Spruce forest, could not found in severe drying of the mountain southern slope, been established in a relatively high altitude swamp muscle and ridges as susceptible of cloud and fog for ensure the water required to grow.

Walnut forest (mainly Persian-Walnut) of southwest Kyrgyz has grown in the mountains surrounding the eastern margin of Ferghana Valley as renowned as the intersection of civilization and history of Central Eurasian. As a large rare climax walnut forest as anywhere in the world, its proper protection and management is one of the major challenges for the forest authorities of Kyrgyzstan because of attracting by many researchers and experts. The forests in this region are not only wild grows walnut but many fruit varieties such as apple and plum; the forests also have very high productivity and economy. In addition, the pistachio and almond forests also exist in low-altitude region as dry area.

Juniper forest (about 17 million ha) is the largest forest area of the typical vegetation of Kyrgyzstan. In particular, juniper forest spread of the southern mountainous region linked to Tajikistan has an important role as a forest to recharge the water resources of the two large rivers as Amu-Darya and Shym-Darya in Central Asia. Juniper trees are also used for festivals and traditional medical practices of the local people, the tree become a symbol for the Kyrgyz people, and the design of juniper tree is adopted the logo mark of the Forest Development Ecology Department of SAEPF which the project belongs.

  • Changes of forest area

Forest of the Kyrgyz Republic cut down in large quantities of the wood from the 1920s through the 1950s by control with the Planned Economy under former Soviet Union. The forests was 1.2million ha (6% of the total land area) in 1930 in the nation, was greatly diminishing to 0.7million ha (3 % of the total land area) in 1956. The forest has recovered 0.865million ha (4.3%) in 2005 by promoting the subsequent reforestation policy, but due to lack of manpower and financial difficulties for the nursery management and appropriate measures to prevent illegally cutting by after independence from the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz faces to resource degradation and decreased crisis again now.

 

  • Forest of the project area

Project has been conducted on the Chui and Issyk-Kul province in the northern part of Kyrgyzstan. Elevation of the residential area is different between Chui province with plain spread along the Chui River and Issyk-Kul province with lakeside of Issyk-Kul Lake (Chui province: 700m ~ 1,700m, Issyk-Kul province: 1,600m ~ 2,000m.) Yet, the types of growing trees are not so much significant difference in both provinces. Common point of both provinces that the coherent forest in the village of vicinity people live is rarely exists. In such places, we can recognize poplar, elm, oak, willow etc are planted as windbreak forest for houses, farmlands, highways, and also street trees and orchards. On the other hand, spruce and juniper natural forests and, pine plantations are scattered in the mountains away from the secluded. The lack of forest and far from the livelihood has become one of the big factors in order to design the project activities.

Forest rate of Chui province is only 1.9 per cent that is less than half of the national average. We just recognize few forests as spruce and juniper natural forest of the nature reserves and national parks in mountainous areas, pine and a birch’s small plantation in national forest around 2000m above sea level, and poplar plantations on plains. And, we can see the windbreak and street trees which are established using the irrigation canals.

Forest rate of Issyk-Kul province is 2.2 per cent that is less than half of the national average, too. Differences from Chui province as few forest viewed, we can see a sequence of relatively large spruce forests which forms a forest zone in mountain lined on both sides of north and south of the lake Issyk-Kul. In addition, the fruit cultivation is thriving on gentle slopes and plains of lakeside, and apple and apricot plantations have been established on all over. The eastern part of the Issyk-Kul Lake has enough rainfall and snowfall, and relatively fertile arable land, but between from entrance of the Chui canyon to the western part of the lake has spread wilderness semi-desert as low rainfall and extremely dry.

Forest management system

Forest of the Kyrgyz Republic, basically, forestry authorities manage and operate by centralized system followed the approach of the Soviet time. Of course, the Kyrgyz Republic has to all responsibility including bear their own budget because support and directive from Moscow extinguished that is significantly different from the former Soviet era. First as the point of view from the central level, the Department of Forest Ecology Development oversee the forestry policy, is belongs to the State Agency of Environmental Protection and Forest.

The Regional Forest Office of the State Agency of Environmental Protection and Forest is provided all seven states throughout the country. Forestry offices, Forestry Field Offices, and Forestry Substations are under the Regional Forest Offices, responsible for the regional forest management operations. Furthermore, the Nature Reserve Office and National Park of the State Agency of Environmental Protection and Forest as organizations for directly involved in forest management except Department of Forest Ecology Development as local execute organizations. In this way, centralized forest management system has been developed at central and local sites.

Forest-related laws and regulations

  • Legislation, supported by the Swiss

Kyrgyz government has been committed to legislation relating to forest management for respond to changing circumstances of surrounding the forest that occurred after independence. First, Forest Code formed for foundation of the forestry policy was enacted in 1993, was amended to the current Forest Code in 1999. A long, medium and short-term forest management policies and plans have been established from 2004 through 2006, one after another. A series of the legislation were assisted by the Swiss government aid project as KIRFOR (Kyrgyz Swiss Forestry Support Program). KIRFOR has supported the all forest sector of the Kyrgyz Republic between 1995 and 2010, for 15 years. Joint Forest Management also has been developed by KIRFOR as a new concept of forest management in Kyrgyzstan. In this way, the basic laws relating to forest management were enacted and forest administration plans were established by efforts of the Kyrgyz Republic government and KIRFOR.

  • Major Forest laws and policies of Kyrgyzstan
Name Enforcement Covered
Forest Code July 8 1999  ----
Concept of Forestry Sector Developmentin Kyrgyz Republic April 14 2004 Until 2025
National Forest Program Nov. 20 2004 from 2005 until 2015
National Action Plan for Development of Forestry of the Kyrgyz Republic Sep. 27 2006 from 2006 until 2010

 

  • Forest Code

Forest Code is the laws basis for all forest-related laws and regulations. It insists basic framework for whole national forest policy such as the definition of forests and forest management, administrative organization mechanism, the ownership and use rights of forest, forest laws and regulations, forest management, forest protection, forest planning etc. The current Forest Code was enacted in 1993, amended in 1999. To this amendment also aim that Forest Field Offices as the implementation organization of forest management in the region would be able to promote its production activities for survive to overcome financial difficulties, the concept changed from only focused on traditional forest conservation.

  • Forest Development Basic Concept

The Forest Development Basic Concept has been enacted in 1999. It was analyzed and evaluated on the results of its operations for five years in 2004, and then it was amended to indicate the long-term policy relating to forest management until 2025. It has summarized the current status and issues of forest management, and announced a basic direction of forest policy on three concepts as "sustainable forest management", "the residents and community join forest management", "(Review of) Country's role in the forest sector" and 10 strategies as shown in the next table.

The 10 strategin lines of the Concept of Forestry sector Development in the Kyrgyz Republic

1. Ensure protection of all forests and biodiversity in the Country.

2. Definition of the tehnical norms for sustainable forest managment.

3. Transfer of productiveactivities to the private sector.

4. Improve the system of collaborative forest managment and leasing relations.

5. Rationalize forest service structure at territorial and national levels.

6. Implementation of economic reform of structural managment units.

7. Improve the status of Forest service personnel.

8. Improvement of forest research and education.

9. Improve efficiency of funding system for forestry sector.

10. Raise public as of forestry- related issues.

 

  • National Forest Plan

National Forest Plan, 10 year plan relating to forest management was established in 2004; mentions the activities to be performed in 10 years to 2015 which summarized the issues to be dealt with each of the 10 strategies in the Forest Development Basic Concept.

  • National Forest Development Action Plan

National Forest Development Action Plan was established in 2006 in the five-year plan relating to forest management, should be achieved and specifically stipulates work for indicated objectives as 7 of the 10 strategies in the Forest Development Basic Concept in five years up to 2010. Among them, it also contains concrete figures such as forested area performed each year, seeds and seedlings production volume, forest survey area etc.

Current status and issues of forest management

  • Cause of forest destruction

As introduced in the transition of forest area, to deforestation by reckless deforestation of the first half of the 20th century took a halt to some extent by the efforts of forest authorities, but scarce forest resources of Kyrgyzstan always have been exposed to the threat pressure of harsh natural environment and anthropogenic destruction. Forest fire, forest pests & disease, abnormal weather, and so on as the natural factors lead to a reduction and degradation of forest resources. However, management the anthropogenic destruction, how control the destruction of forests by human action, is more difficult and important on the proper forest management. Illegal logging for secure the firewood and timber by local people is a common problem in the whole of Kyrgyzstan. In addition, foraging behavior of livestock also remarkable Damage the forest in the mixture of grassland for grazing livestock and forest areas.

 

  • Forest management after the independence

Kyrgyz government has been exploring the new forest management from the late 1990s. As one of the great policy change, movement to reduce the role of government sector to introduce the private sector. "Joint Forest Management" project also will be a part of the large flow. Currently, Kyrgyz Republic is in the stage of transition to a market economy from a planned economy of general socio-economic structure of the, seeking development process. Its forest management is also ongoing the same process.

Introduce the Kyrgyz Republic - Pro-Japanese country of Central Asian

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Mission of Project

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Professional look

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Vestibulum vulputate aliquam risus. Praesent consequat scelerisque velit eu elementum. Praesent posuere tortor sed mi ullamcorper sodales. Cras porta purus in. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean ut justo nec arcu molestie molestie non quis magna. Mauris dictum aliquam nisi, vitae elementum magna rhoncus et.