The Project for the Support for Joint Forest Management in the Kyrgyz Republic



» Overview of forest in Kyrgyzstan

  • Vegetation distribution

The forest covered rate of Kyrgyz is only 4.3%. Harsh natural conditions as cold high altitude and a little rainfall of this country, the more difficult the establishment of forest. About 170 species of trees has been native in the Kyrgyz however its forest type is relatively small and monotonous by the climatic conditions. Forests of Kyrgyzstan are significantly divided into three typical forest vegetations. Spruce forests of the northern mountainous region, Walnut forest of southwest, Juniper forest towards the southern border of Tajikistan. In addition, the willows and gummy forests have been distributed throughout as shrub and riparian forests.

Spruce forest (mainly Tianshan spruce) is the most conspicuous forest in the mountains of northern Kyrgyzstan where is located at the foot of south Tianshan Mountains. The green pastures are spread along the wide open valley, black branches and leaves of high sharp spruce forest poke the sky, is familiar landscape as symbolize the natural beauty of the Kyrgyz Republic. Spruce forest, could not found in severe drying of the mountain southern slope, been established in a relatively high altitude swamp muscle and ridges as susceptible of cloud and fog for ensure the water required to grow.

Walnut forest (mainly Persian-Walnut) of southwest Kyrgyz has grown in the mountains surrounding the eastern margin of Ferghana Valley as renowned as the intersection of civilization and history of Central Eurasian. As a large rare climax walnut forest as anywhere in the world, its proper protection and management is one of the major challenges for the forest authorities of Kyrgyzstan because of attracting by many researchers and experts. The forests in this region are not only wild grows walnut but many fruit varieties such as apple and plum; the forests also have very high productivity and economy. In addition, the pistachio and almond forests also exist in low-altitude region as dry area.

Juniper forest (about 17 million ha) is the largest forest area of the typical vegetation of Kyrgyzstan. In particular, juniper forest spread of the southern mountainous region linked to Tajikistan has an important role as a forest to recharge the water resources of the two large rivers as Amu-Darya and Shym-Darya in Central Asia. Juniper trees are also used for festivals and traditional medical practices of the local people, the tree become a symbol for the Kyrgyz people, and the design of juniper tree is adopted the logo mark of the Forest Development Ecology Department of SAEPF which the project belongs.

  • Changes of forest area

Forest of the Kyrgyz Republic cut down in large quantities of the wood from the 1920s through the 1950s by control with the Planned Economy under former Soviet Union. The forests was 1.2million ha (6% of the total land area) in 1930 in the nation, was greatly diminishing to 0.7million ha (3 % of the total land area) in 1956. The forest has recovered 0.865million ha (4.3%) in 2005 by promoting the subsequent reforestation policy, but due to lack of manpower and financial difficulties for the nursery management and appropriate measures to prevent illegally cutting by after independence from the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz faces to resource degradation and decreased crisis again now.

 

  • Forest of the project area

Project has been conducted on the Chui and Issyk-Kul province in the northern part of Kyrgyzstan. Elevation of the residential area is different between Chui province with plain spread along the Chui River and Issyk-Kul province with lakeside of Issyk-Kul Lake (Chui province: 700m ~ 1,700m, Issyk-Kul province: 1,600m ~ 2,000m.) Yet, the types of growing trees are not so much significant difference in both provinces. Common point of both provinces that the coherent forest in the village of vicinity people live is rarely exists. In such places, we can recognize poplar, elm, oak, willow etc are planted as windbreak forest for houses, farmlands, highways, and also street trees and orchards. On the other hand, spruce and juniper natural forests and, pine plantations are scattered in the mountains away from the secluded. The lack of forest and far from the livelihood has become one of the big factors in order to design the project activities.

Forest rate of Chui province is only 1.9 per cent that is less than half of the national average. We just recognize few forests as spruce and juniper natural forest of the nature reserves and national parks in mountainous areas, pine and a birch’s small plantation in national forest around 2000m above sea level, and poplar plantations on plains. And, we can see the windbreak and street trees which are established using the irrigation canals.

Forest rate of Issyk-Kul province is 2.2 per cent that is less than half of the national average, too. Differences from Chui province as few forest viewed, we can see a sequence of relatively large spruce forests which forms a forest zone in mountain lined on both sides of north and south of the lake Issyk-Kul. In addition, the fruit cultivation is thriving on gentle slopes and plains of lakeside, and apple and apricot plantations have been established on all over. The eastern part of the Issyk-Kul Lake has enough rainfall and snowfall, and relatively fertile arable land, but between from entrance of the Chui canyon to the western part of the lake has spread wilderness semi-desert as low rainfall and extremely dry.

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Introduce the Kyrgyz Republic - Pro-Japanese country of Central Asian

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Mission of Project

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Professional look

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